Crypto | RightMesh (RMESH) | RightMesh Whitepaper
A connected world is a better world. When you give people the ability to connect—to the world, to each other, across the street, or around the world—the world becomes a more intimate place where anything is possible. We believe in the rights of an individual and net neutrality.
本ページに掲載しているホワイトペーパーは、スマホ／モバイルでの読解の補助を目的に、原文を成形し冒頭の概要部分を紹介したものです。 原文はこちらをご覧ください。 https://www.rightmesh.io/docs/RightMesh_WP5.pdf
We believe in the right to connectivity. A connected world is a better world. When you give people the ability to connect—to the world, to each other, across the street, or around the world—the world becomes a more intimate place where anything is possible.
We believe in the rights of an individual and net neutrality. A person has the right to privacy, security, freedom of expression, and freedom of association. When you empower a person with the ability to earn, contribute, own property, and generate value, the Community benefits.
We believe in doing the right thing. Basic human decency appears not to be so basic anymore. Just because we believe in the rights of the individual, doesn’t mean we don’t have a responsibility to care for and protect each other and the planet. There are things we all share: humanity, the air, the environment, knowledge, ideas. If we take care of these not-so-little things, we are all better for it.
We believe we are fortunate to live in a world where technology can enable and protect these rights. As such, it is our responsibility to create an ecosystem that connects the world, empowers a new generation of digital entrepreneurs, and allows the unconnected to access content and information that improves their life outcomes and makes the world a better place for all.
We believe these things are right. We are RightMesh AG.
At RightMesh AG, we have created new technology platform and protocol for connecting users in an ad hoc wireless mesh network, and in so doing, we are creating new connectivity options and improved outcomes to billions of unconnected users around the world—all while providing a pathway to a new Internet for all. The fight for Net Neutrality is real. A decentralized mobile mesh networking platform, powered by blockchain technology and tokenization, can put the power of connectivity back into the hands of the people.
Core to the platform is an Ethereum account and identity layer that uniquely identifies every mesh node. In an off-the-grid mesh world, when linking multiple hotspots and networks together, traditional identity methods (IP addresses) will not work adequately. The network’s approach to mesh participation and activation solves this problem. We believe that when you combine blockchain-based technologies, token incentivization, and wireless mesh networks—you unleash the potential of both technical and economic network effects while making a lasting difference on the world around you.
We call this the RightMesh™ project.
With RightMesh™, the devices people already carry around everyday form the infrastructure. This is a software-based solution running as a background process on a device that will achieve distributed decentralization that will only continue to strengthen with network density. The key principle is that the RightMesh network is self-forming, self-healing, and self-regulating, using whatever it has at its disposal. It runs on devices most of the world already uses and can easily afford. No additional hardware or infrastructure is required, and no longer will people be beholden to ISPs.
As both a platform and a network, RightMesh™ enables developers to retrofit existing mobile applications or build new, decentralized mesh applications. RightMesh AG also intends to introduce a RightMesh utility token, or RMESH (alternatively Mesh Token and/or Mesh Coin), that participants in the ecosystem will use to facilitate the purchase and sale of goods and services.
One example of such a transaction would be an application that empowers a RightMesh™ user to sell excess Internet capacity, giving those who do not have access to this utility the ability to connect to other meshes (today) or consume general Internet traffic (soon). There will soon be more than 6 billion smartphones on the planet and 20 billion IoT devices by 2020, a lot of which will have underutilized connectivity, storage, and processing capabilities. This is the sharing economy flattened by a P2P, decentralized revolution. And just as companies have shared their homes (Airbnb) and automobiles (Uber and Lyft), RightMesh will empower users to take control of their device and extract its intrinsic, already-invested value, but without relying on middlemen.
Another example might be a user who creates a digital good (i.e., music, video, apps, magic swords, or photos) and transmits this to another user for an exchange of RMESH tokens. We live in a world that is becoming increasingly digitized, and thus, the concept of work and value creation has changed. A user with a connected smartphone can transact and produce value that is useful to a person or machine on the other side of the planet.
RightMesh AG believes this ecosystem will create a new generation of digital entrepreneurs, provide a viable option for a free and open Internet as initially envisioned—all while helping emerging economies access content and information that improves their life outcomes.
As the McKinsey Global Institute pointed out, there is a strong correlation between access to the Internet and one’s contribution to wealth creation, making possible “…new waves of business models and entrepreneurship” as well as “radical innovations for accessing, using, and delivering goods and services for everyone.”
Furthermore, as Manuel Castells, distinguished author and oft-cited Professor for Communication Technology and Society at University of Southern California stated, “The Internet is the decisive technology of the Information Age, as the electrical engine was the vector of technological transformation of the Industrial Age… this global network of computer networks, largely based nowadays on platforms of wireless communication, provides ubiquitous capacity of multimodal,interactive communication in chosen time, transcending space.“ . Castells further adds, “The Internet ensures the production, distribution, and use of digitized information in all formats”, calling out a 2011 study published by Martin Hilbert in Science noting that 95 percent of all information existing in the planet is digitized and most of it is accessible on the Internet and other computer networks.
Given the above, it should have surprised no one when in June of 2016, the United Nations issued a declaration on the importance of connectivity and that access to the Internet and online freedom is a human right. The UN Resolution called on nations to apply “a comprehensive human rights-based approach when providing and expanding access to the Internet and for the Internet to be open, accessible, and nurtured.”
Providing global connectivity and access is simply the right thing to do.
Given the already significant technical impact the Internet has had on society and economies, a new technology has emerged with the potential to radically transform network connections and make global data flows even better. The technology is known as blockchain.
When deployed across a network, blockchain can remove inefficiencies, increase trust and security, and enable new technological advancements without the need for middlemen7, the primary beneficiaries of the Internet economy in the current paradigm.
The hype behind blockchain has been at an all-time high, thanks largely to dramatic increases in value of many of the world’s cryptocurrencies that use this technology as their underpinnings. While a lot of the hyperbole gives many reasons to be excited, the statement “Blockchain can change the world” needs to be amended to include the statement, “…if the user has connectivity.” Without connectivity, the power and potential of blockchain—and decentralized networks in general—is much reduced.
In fact, the world is NOT connected. There are nearly 4 billion people over half the world’s population who lack connectivity (3.7 Billion, April 2017). These people cannot benefit from the societal and economic benefits brought about by the Internet.
According to PwC Strategy&, “Affordability is the main barrier to Internet adoption…. The Internet’s truly revolutionary potential will be unleashed only when the remaining 56 percent are also connected. This will create millions of new jobs, develop vast new markets, and lift millions out of poverty.” The PwC study noted that data prices needed to fall by around 90% below 2016 prices on average to be universally affordable (defined as 500MB costing less than 5% of the monthly income).
However, PwC concludes universal affordability is “challenging” given that margins on data are already negative in many developing countries. And that, “reducing data prices while increasing capacity to deal with ever-increasing data demand requires modernized technologies and a rethinking of content distribution.”
It is not that this less-connected half of the population does not have the potential for access. In Facebook’s 2016 State of Connectivity Report, they found that 96% of the world’s population live within range of a 2G mobile signal.10
Throughout the past year, connectivity reports have been improving somewhat over 2016 figures according to the Global System Mobile Association (GSMA), largely because of cheaper smartphones and gradually-decreasing data costs. New smartphones—complete with cameras, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and an abundance of sensors—provide the possibility for connectivity, assuming data costs are reasonable and networks are not over capacity (which, unfortunately, they often are).
Telecom infrastructure companies argue that the future does look bright, with the potential for 5G networks. These fifth-generation cellular networks promise to provide ubiquitous connectivity, extremely low latency, and very high-speed data transfer. Unfortunately, forecasts are calling for only 150M subscriptions to 5G networks by the year 2021, and most of these will be in
well-developed economies.12 Furthermore, the GSMA reported that there will be more than 1 billion people in the year 2020 that will still rely on 2G connectivity.13
Piling onto this pessimistic news is the fact that demand for data is increasing. With the introduction of new, larger-screen smartphones and data-consuming tablets, there is a continuing increase in usage in terms of gigabytes per month per user in all the top tiers of mobile users.
Global mobile data traffic grew 63 percent in 2016, reaching 7.2 exabytes per month at the end of 2016, up from 4.4 exabytes per month at the end of 2015.14 Unfortunately, the laws of physics stipulate that the available spectrum is finite.
Given all these factors, telecom companies globally are faced with investing significantly in new infrastructure while existing revenue streams are eroding just to maintain the status quo. This includes upgrading to new networks, physical infrastructure deployments, as well as purchasing the required spectrum licenses via expensive auctions. The problem in emerging markets is not the same as within North America either. As Rajan Anandan, Google’s VP and Managing Director for South-East Asia & India has said, “If you are going to connect a billion Indians, you are going to need radically different sets of technologies.”15
The unfortunate reality is an even greater digital divide is emerging: those who have are experiencing a golden age of connectivity. While those who have not, are being left behind.
In recent years, many of the leading technology companies have invested in “moonshot” projects to connect the next billion. Among several initiatives, Facebook is launching drones to beam Internet around the world while Google deploys a fleet of both high-altitude weather balloons and solar-powered drones. SpaceX plans to launch more than 4,400 satellites to provide Internet connectivity to offset costs for funding a Mars colony.
These companies see “Connecting the Next Billion” as part of their global missions. Critics, meanwhile, have argued that these big infrastructure initiatives are self serving.19 Their goal of connectivity, many believe, is not about engendering freedom and opportunity (e.g., the Arab Spring revolution), but rather growing their respective advertising kingdoms. A huge payoff is in store for the company that can be first in bringing the next wave of users online.
In a centralized, Internet-world of middlemen where content is free, the consumer is the product.
Like the big technology companies, various world governments also play the role of the central authority figure (the “Middleman”), governing who can see what on the Internet and who can communicate with whom. As evidenced by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and reported by The New York Times, a centralized approach to the global networks may mean that someone may always be watching, citing a relationship between the US National Security Agency (NSA) and AT&T. 21
Furthermore, central authorities can always shut networks down, fearing threat to an incumbent way of life. Many apps stop short at the “Great Firewall of China”. During times of civil unrest, governments appear too eager to dampen communication methods. The governments of Egypt, Libya and Syria imposed full Internet shutdowns during the Arab Spring in an attempt to quell protests. WhatsApp was blocked in Brazil four times in 2016 amid public outcry. Twitter was blocked by many countries in the past, and continues to be blocked in North Korea, China and Iran. Viber was shut down in Bangladesh and Zello was blocked in Venezuela: both during times of public protests against the ruling governments.
Before one jumps to the conclusion this is only a problem for emerging markets, every natural or manmade disaster (hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, school shootings, or others) results in similar network disruptions with similar effects. One must only be separated from a family member during a chaotic event to realize the failures of a centralized infrastructure.
Within open democracies, the concept of a free and open Internet is being eroded. The most recent proof is a decision by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) who voted to “roll back
U.S. laws designed to ensure a free and open internet, a controversial but expected decision that critics say hands control of web traffic to a small number of billion-dollar companies.”22
Connectivity on a global scale cannot happen fast enough. A new approach is needed to efficiently and affordably connect the world.
To be truly decentralized, we believe we first have to deal with the dependency that we have on incumbent ISP's. Today, all cryptocurrencies touting P2P payment capabilities require centralized infrastructure to execute any of their actions. As such, we believe other peer-to-peer (p2p) tokens, cryptocurrencies, and many p2p applications are incorrect about their definition and claims of being decentralized.
To clarify, while other projects have removed centralized servers which may store websites, apps, and user data, users have no means to physically connect with other peers without the infrastructure supplied by ISPs and controlled by the middlemen previously mentioned (notably, corporations and governments). While we have gained the ability to control who may possess our data, and create apps that operate without centralized infrastructure to manipulate this data in a meaningful way to extract value, we still almost always need to go through an ISP. Data transmitted between users still must take predictable paths along physical infrastructure including fibre optic cables, copper and coaxial wires, and through cell towers and Wi-Fi hotspots to reach its destination.
In other words, we can do all the things the web can do with decentralized applications (e.g., without Amazon, Google, Facebook, PayPal, eBay, etc.), but we cannot yet do it without the help of Sprint, Verizon, AT&T, China Mobile, and other large infrastructure providers, even in our
p2p-enabled, cryptocurrency world of today.
Existing p2p networks construct a logical p2p network where it appears as if everyone is connected directly to each other, but in fact there is no effort to make a path that uses local connectivity. The logical path still uses Wi-Fi links directly to our ISPs and through the Internet, when in fact a true p2p network would attempt to directly connect whenever possible. For example, the Status.im teller network is a great idea to convert fiat cash into cryptocurrencies, but it won’t function unless every one of the network participants has a direct Internet connection. As noted earlier, more than 4 billion people do not presently have connectivity. It should also be noted that within the original Status.im white paper, they have highlighted the need for adhoc mesh networking and have included it into their project plan with an estimated delivery of Q2 2019. RightMesh™ could dramatically speed up this timeline.
RightMesh is the first project which can tackle these problems, building a network and platform which can be truly called p2p. With RightMesh™, the devices people already carry around everyday form the infrastructure. According to Ericsson’s 2017 Mobility Report, there were 3.9 billion smartphone subscriptions at the end of 2016.24
A heterogeneous network (HetNet) is a network connecting computers and other devices with different operating systems and/or protocols. RightMesh™ uses Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi direct, and allows mobile phones, computers, and even IoT devices to connect with each other and form the infrastructure when none exists, or is too expensive to use. Additional communication protocols can be incorporated as the phones/devices support them (e.g., LiFi, LTE-Direct, etc.).
These devices can be used to form a wireless mesh network using many of the existing wireless technologies on the device, creating a large-scale, mobile HetNet.
With RightMesh™, people can achieve distributed decentralization that can only continue to strengthen with network density. When installed on a smartphone or Java-enabled device, it could be impossible to stop, short of confiscating every device from every person. The key principle is that the RightMesh™ network is self-forming, self-healing, and self-regulating, using whatever it has at its disposal. It runs on devices most of the world already uses and can easily afford.
Compared with competing mesh technologies, the RightMesh™ network can compute paths. It does not naively broadcast to all devices. Instead, it can make use of multiple paths at once and spread the load across multiple technologies. Importantly, RightMesh™ does not rely on operating system routing. It gives the protocol full control to use multiple paths to optimize and manipulate routes without rooting the device. Furthermore, RightMesh™ allows data to flow through disparate MeshPorts (i.e., those from other applications). This allows for larger meshes to be created and greater density to be achieved.
Case Study - Doctor Easy
Consider the following example, the RightMesh™ project team is currently building an application with the RightMes™ protocol called DoctorEasy. The application came out of a need identified during a Bangladesh Hackathon with the team in December 2017. The application is attempting to solve the problem experienced by tens of millions of Bangladeshi every year.
In Bangladesh, you presently have one doctor that serves about 10,000 people. Most community doctors operate out of local Doctor’s Chambers, located among the neigbourhood in which their patients live. The average doctor sees about 100 patients per day. To visit a doctor, the typical patient has to queue up an average of 3 to 4 hours prior to seeing the physician, frequently waiting in crowded, un-airconditioned, germ-infested waiting rooms. Should patients leave, they lose their place in line. In this inefficient system, they are unable to care for their families, grab food/tea, or remain at work.
Within the application we are creating, a person can digitally “line up” and get alerted across the mesh when it is their turn to see the doctor. The patient can get a copy of this application from their doctor’s office. Given the close geo-proximity that the patients will have to the doctor’s office and to each other, we believe that after just a few weeks, the neighbourhood surrounding the Doctor’s Chambers will have enough density to support the mesh to blanket the community.
However, where network effects come into play is that subsequent applications can leverage the density established by this first application, to allow mesh connectivity across the same neigbourhoods. Thus, a potential messaging app can use the density created by Doctor Easy to increase the likelihood of connectivity between peers.
Case Study - Flare
Another product being developed that will use the RightMesh™ SDK is Flare— a mesh-enabled application that will act as an “emergency communications kit” when all other forms of communication fail. Flare is in its final prototype testing phase and is scheduled for public release Q2 2018.
The mesh-enabled Flare app is intended to serve as a staple in any emergency preparedness kit. Just as people stock up on bottled water, people can download the Flare app as a backup for communication in case of disruption to phone and Internet service.
Key features under development include:
- Peer-to-peer text, photo, audio and location messages
- Send an Emergency “Flare” — blast messages for help, sent to anyone available in the mesh
- Ability to post and respond to requests for items such as water, pet food, or a generator
- Ability to share location on downloaded maps so users can geolocate each other
An additional concept the RightMesh team has been developing is a drone that can function as a node in the mesh to enhance Flare’s utility to help rescue efforts. With the autonomous connectivity of the mesh network, the drone could fly over affected areas and instantly detect autonomous blast messages or ‘Flares’ asking for help from within 100 metres or anyone that is mesh connected. The drone could then return to a base or Internet-connected zone to relay the information to rescue workers.
There is more than one reason for the RightMesh team to develop Flare (other than the obvious humanitarian reasons).
It is no secret that mesh networks require density. RightMesh™-powered Flare will be the first app that will create density by redefining app ‘users’ in the mesh. Traditionally, consumer apps measure success and growth in daily active users (DAU) or monthly active users (MAU). With RightMesh™, what matters is active ‘nodes’, meaning devices that have installed our library (and have not uninstalled it) by downloading and initializing a mesh-enabled app. So a ‘user’, in our new definition, may not actually be actively using the app; however, with our library installed, they can still be an active node by contributing passively as a routing node and can still be reactivated in times of true network disruption. These are the ‘users’ we need to create the density required.
We, in fact, hope that people will never use Flare — meaning, we hope they never experience a catastrophe that requires it. But, our intention is that they also will never uninstall it. It will remain on their devices ‘just in case’. The secondary purpose for the app, then, is to create ‘users’ (defined now as ‘nodes’) to build density.
Flare will be free and accessible to all Android users as a critical emergency preparedness tool and as a way to build density. When it is published, Flare will be shared to the community as open source on our GitHub repository. It is our hope that the community will continue to improve upon it, localize it into other languages, and build variations that adopt the same principles, thus bringing this public service tool to the world and helping to spread RightMesh™ network density worldwide.
It is our eventual hope that device manufacturers and launchers will choose to install Flare as a pre-installed app. We will be pursuing partnerships in this area, and we will announce this to the community should any materialize.
Within our architecture, users of the above Doctor Easy application can create community density, and with this users of Flare would be able to leverage that density for its own purposes. Sharing this common core between applications is unique to RightMesh.
Additional information on the Rightmesh™ architecture and technology that enables multiple apps to interoperate on
RightMesh Tokens (RMESH)
RightMesh AG intends to introduce a RightMesh™ token, or RMESH, that will allow participants in the ecosystem to facilitate the purchase and sale of goods and services, be it data and Internet access; device storage, battery, and processing power; personal identity, geolocation, and attention; or other digital goods and services created by mesh participants themselves.
The RightMesh™ token will be an ERC-20 token to provide utility in the mesh network and enable interoperability with other DAPPs that use the same token. RMESH is the native token for the RightMesh™ protocol and unlocks its utility value and removes many of the identified barriers to entry. It is the incentive mechanism to reward participants for behavior that is beneficial to the network maintenance and growth.
A few of its use cases include:
- RMESH is the economic incentive for nodes in the network to provide ‘connectivity’ between devices, and to manage and sustain the network.
- RMESH can be used by end users to pay for premium services or data from app or content providers, or from other nodes (e.g., sensor data).
- RMESH can be used by the content providers to incentivize users to consume content
- RMESH is a specific token that will only work on the RightMesh™ network when nodes are not connected directly to the Internet.
With RightMesh™, participants in the ecosystem can be concurrently earning and spending tokens as each user plays the role of producer and consumer of mesh services.
The RMESH token has its own distinct unit value from Ether that pertains to how it is used specifically in its own economy. While the RightMesh™ network can facilitate some entirely off-grid connectivity between users, we believe the RMESH token is essentially the fuel that powers the mesh network, and without it the mesh network cannot operate.
The RightMesh tokens do not represent or constitute any ownership right or stake, share or security, or equivalent rights; nor any right to receive future revenues, shares, or other form of participation or governance right in or relating to the RightMesh™ platform, its parent company Left (Left of the Dot Media Inc.), and all its subsidiary companies including, but not limited to, RightMesh AG.
RightMesh Developer SDK
The RightMesh™ SDK is the primary product of RightMesh AG, and thus, the users of the free software development kit are the company’s primary customers. Everything starts with the developer or partner who integrates the technology.
The RightMesh™ platform was released into private beta in September 2017 and to date, more than 200 developers and 80 different projects have been compiled with the SDK. Developers can use the SDK to build decentralized mesh applications. Within a few lines of code, the RightMesh™ service can be integrated into new or existing mobile applications (without end users knowing anything about mesh networking). The platform currently supports Android and some Java-enabled devices. Additional operating system platforms are included on our roadmap.
The following diagram depicts the RightMesh™ network stack in its entirety (further detailed in the RightMesh Technical White Paper). The top layer are the applications that consumers and businesses would interact with on an everyday basis. These applications communicate with the RightMesh™ API (AndroidMeshManager) and RightMesh™ Service to manage everything else.
While RightMesh AG is building certain applications itself (including messaging, app distribution, app updating, content sharing, emergency services, and Internet sharing), providing a software development kit to developers allows us to integrate with existing applications (and thus spread the mesh much faster). We also believe one of the barriers to connectivity adoption is the lack of relevant content and applications in the local language.27 RightMesh™-powered apps can be built by the community in local languages and feature local content to increase relevance to consumers.
The applications built by the RightMesh™ Apps team will be released as Open Source and published on GitHub. Thus, a user can take our Flare emergency application, by way of example, and modify it to work in a different language. This makes the app more usable for local audiences, but the underlying mesh network will keep on working.
Application developers can start building applications directly via the RightMesh™ Developer’s Portal. The SDK is being provided free to developers. A license key is required to build applications with the toolset, however. The license provides a way to ensure two apps don’t attempt to use conflicting MeshPorts. This reduces the possibility that one mesh app will attempt to intercept data intended for another app. Decentralized developer environment are also being explored.
The company is exploring incentivization options for developers, including but not limited to, issuing a nominal amount of RMESH treasury tokens to projects of interest, or providing the staking of RMESH tokens on behalf of projects. While nothing is assured, all such decisions will be made via the sole discretion of Rightmesh AG.
Learn more and start creating mesh apps here: https://www.rightmesh.io/developers/
The Developer SDK makes it possible for new RightMesh™ app developers to piggyback on the success of other developers. RightMesh™ allows apps, empowered by the RightMesh™ protocol, to forward through other devices which may not even have the same app. All apps use a common service (or common core) that, once initialized, allows data to flow through it to others nearby, regardless as to whether the same app is used by all participants in the network. As a result, RightMesh™ networks will automatically form whenever smartphones come together, even though users may be using different RightMesh™ apps.
Using Network Effects to Create Density
In examining historical attempts at mesh networking, the primary reason deployments were unsuccessful was due to lack of density. Previous attempts had required a physical investment in specialized hardware: physical routers and switches that were locked in place rather than travelling with the user. With RightMesh™, density is no longer a constraint. RightMesh™ uses the growing density of users with smartphones as well as the ever-increasing number of IoT sensors to provide the infrastructure wherever users congregate the most.
What makes RightMesh™ technology unique is that it works on existing smartphones (without rooting the device), which makes all other infrastructure and hardware technologies complementary to creating a stronger mesh.29 This allows the mesh infrastructure to move and operate where people naturally congregate. Note: the current distance between nodes is dependent on the technology, hardware, spectrum being used, and environment. For reference, we anticipate being able to connect nodes when the participants are 80m to 100m apart. A few target environments to start with include:
- Public spaces
- Hotels, Resorts & Venues
- Office buildings
- Dense indoor residences/apartments
- Shopping malls
- In Transit/riding on buses
- Sitting in congested traffic
Competing technologies—including femtocells, picocells, microcells, mesh routers, and even beacons—require physical infrastructure investment and do not scale up or down to meet population changes and do not move with the consumer. RightMesh™ creates an on-device mobile mesh that complements other infrastructure.
As more users begin to use RightMesh™ in a given geographic location, the value to incumbent users increases. New users would receive a better user experience, enjoy more content, get access to more content/apps, and increase the likelihood of accessing shared connectivity and resources. A study undertaken by the RightMesh team concluded that a city with the density of Dhaka, Bangladesh (24,700 people per square km) could be entirely covered with only 5% mesh penetration. In comparison, San Francisco, the second most dense city in the USA, has a density of 6,632 per square km.30
While the aforementioned environments focus on “pop-up” use cases, in many urban cities daily life is filled with sufficient density to make a mesh network useful nearly all of the time once density has been established.
The world has embraced the Sharing Economy, where any individual can sell or donate already invested assets: be it a house, an automobile, or surplus computer storage. RightMesh™ provides for a decentralized application of the sharing economy where users share p2p with other users. As this economy grows for access to connectivity or on-device resources (storage, processing, or sensor data), we believe that the challenge of mesh density will be addressed.
The Competitive Landscape and Where RightMesh Fits In
It is important to note that “mesh networking” is an abstract phrase. There are many types of mesh networking implementations that exist today. At a high level, mesh networking solutions could broadly be classified into two categories: hardware-based and software-based solutions. It is also beneficial to understand how mesh networking solutions differentiate from “traditional networking” solutions, which can also be either hardware-based or software-based. We define “traditional networking” as a connection between two endpoints with at most one wireless hop on each end, often covering vast distances through expensive wiring, fibre optic cables and using servers in some far away land. Mesh networking requires none of that and minimizes the physical distance between the two end-points. It achieves this by wirelessly connecting across multiple nodes or devices. Traditional infrastructure mesh networks minimize the distance to the Internet so we can continue to use our existing methodology. Mobile mesh networks find the most appropriate connection(s) between two peers whether that is through other devices, infrastructure, or some combination of both.
The large majority of companies today fall under the hardware-based traditional networking quadrant, which is dominated by the many players that connect the online world today, including network equipment providers, telecommunication companies, and Internet giants. Not surprisingly, this is also where the most investment is being made today.
There are a few dominant technologies that fall under the software-based traditional networking space, such as Bluetooth and AirDrop. Several file transfer applications such as SHAREit, which rely on peer-to-peer Wi-Fi connections between two nodes, have proven to be immensely popular in
emerging markets. However, connectivity is limited to two participants and is restricted by a short range distance.
As for mesh networking, hardware mesh networking solutions have gained a lot of recent attention, most notably for Wi-Fi routers (e.g. Meraki, Eero, Ammbr) that act as “fixed nodes”, and mobile phone accompaniments (e.g. goTenna). The software-based mobile mesh networking space, to which RightMesh™ belongs, is much more sparse in comparison. This is not due to the fact that it has not been thought of seriously. In fact many companies have attempted to build mobile mesh networks, but with only limited success. We firmly believe that in order for mesh networking to be truly impactful, it needs to reach mass markets and for that, it needs to run on existing devices and OS platforms—without rooting the smartphone.
Executing a successful token generation event, providing the RightMesh™ SDK for free to the world’s development community, and creating intrinsic incentives for end-user adoption will all help the platform and network achieve its potential.
RightMesh AG also believes that there is a possibility for many projects to co-exist and collaborate in this area - as different projects could be looking at different technologies (hardware or software, different wireless links) while serving different markets (e.g. broadband WiFi is different from mobile data). And so projects like Althea, Ammbr, Orchid, and goTenna are potentially collaborative projects as they are looking at different technologies. To this end, RightMesh AGhas launched the Universal Connectivity Alliance (UCA) in conjunction with BlockMesh and Althea. This alliance seeks to accelerate the deployment of connectivity to the nearly 4 billion people who do not have internet access today by encouraging collaboration between members, investigating interoperability opportunities, and conducting academic research.
Rightmesh™ supports end-to-end encryption using the Open Whisper/Signal library (whispersystems.org). The Signal protocol has been implemented by WhatsApp, which is said to encrypt the conversations of “more than a billion people”. Google’s messaging app called Allo, which features an optional "incognito mode", also uses the Signal protocol for its end-to-end encryption. For within RightMesh™, the Signal library has been modified so that it no longer involves the server portion, since that would require Internet access.
RightMesh™ offers two levels of security: one where the key is directly exchanged in a single hop (this is the more secure option); the second, where the key exchange occurs through the mesh over multiple hops; however, this method is less secure. The team is working on ways to improve this process (e.g., sending the key across multiple paths, split up, so that the attacker would need to compromise many devices at the same time). The RightMesh™ team is also working on ways to improve the user-friendliness of a secure key exchange such as with a 2-dimensional barcode or near-field communication (NFC). RightMesh™ does not store any keys on any server, so any key exchange that occurs securely means only the recipients can decrypt the data. There is no way RightMesh™ or the RightMesh team can be compelled to give up the keys because we do not store any.
Unlike other mesh platforms which broadcast naively to every device, RightMesh™ only forwards directly on a routing path. As a result, fewer devices have data flowing through them, so it is much harder to attack. On the Wi-Fi portion, RightMesh™ uses WPA2 encryption, so only devices using RightMesh can connect to each other. The MeshID which is the device identity in the mesh is encrypted, protecting access to tokens associated with the device. It is also our policy to enable encryption by default. Our portal uses https and passwords are never sent, nor stored, in plaintext.
Further details of RightMesh security are addressed in the RightMesh Technical White Paper.
続きの 原文はこちらをご覧ください。 https://www.rightmesh.io/docs/RightMesh_WP5.pdf